2012 ap government essay questions

I was in New Hampshire at the kickoff for the FIRST Robotics competition — an international program for middle and high school students — a few weeks ago when a mentor of a team from California approached me with a look of dismay. He said that he has a hard time recruiting team members for the FIRST team because the students are concerned it will take too much time away from their AP courses.

2012 ap government essay questions

Account for the differences in oxygen consumption observed between: Explain why each of these features is necessary. State the conclusions reached by Mendel in his work on the inheritance of characteristics. Explain how each 2012 ap government essay questions the following deviates from these conclusions.

Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.

Explain how the events of meiosis I account for the observations that led Mendel to formulate these laws. An organism is heterozygous at two genetic loci on different chromosomes. Explain how these alleles are transmitted by the process of mitosis to daughter cells. Explain how these alleles are distributed by the process of meiosis to gametes.

Labeled diagrams that are explained in your answer may be useful. A portion of specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets. What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides? What would be the effects of a substitution in one of the nucleotides?

Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein synthesis in bacterial cells. Explain how DNA meets each of the three criteria stated above. Select one of the criteria stated above and describe experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material.

Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation. Describe the production and processing of a protein that will be exported from a eukaryotic cell.

Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA template and end with the release of the protein at the plasma membrane. Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachment of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending generalized with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome.

Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4, base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for two restriction enzymes enzyme X and enzyme Y.

Explain how the principles of gel electrophoresis allow for the separation of DNA fragments. Describe the results you would expect from the electrophoresis separation of fragments from the following treatments of the DNA segment above. Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion.

The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes. The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for enzyme Y. By using the techniques of genetic engineering, scientists are able to modify genetic materials so that a particular gene of interest from one cell can be incorporated into a different cell.

Describe a procedure by which this can be done. Explain the purpose of each step of your procedure. Describe how you could determine whether the gene was successfully incorporated. Describe an example of how gene transfer and incorporation have been used in biomedical or commercial applications.

Assume that a particular genetic condition in a mammalian species causes an inability to digest starch.

This disorder occurs with equal frequency in males and females. In most cases, neither parent of affected offspring has the condition. Describe the most probable pattern of inheritance for this condition. Include in your discussion a sample cross es sufficient to verify your proposed pattern. Explain how a mutation could cause this inability to digest starch.AP European History Audio Learn; By: AudioLearn Editors If you're looking to score a perfect five on your AP US Government exam, look no further.

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2012 ap government essay questions

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