Data Governance Conference Europe The call for speakers has now been issued with a deadline of 23 November to submit.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The 14th century During the 14th century, humanism strengthened, diversified, and spread, with Florence remaining at its epicentre.
The three figures who were most critical to the rise of the humanist movement during this period were Petrarch, Boccaccio, and Salutati. Petrarch The influence of Petrarch was profound and multifaceted.
He promoted the recovery and transcription of Classical texts, providing the impetus for the important Classical researches of Boccaccio and Salutati. He threw himself into controversies in which he defined a new humanism in contradistinction to what he considered to be the barbaric influence of medieval tradition.
He carried on an energetic correspondence that established him as a cultural focal point and would provide, even if all his other works were lost, an accurate index of his views and their development. As a theologian he was an ordained priesthe advanced the view, held by many humanists who followed, that Classical learning and Christian spirituality were not only compatible but also mutually fulfilling.
As a poet, he was the first Renaissance writer to produce a Latin epic Africa, published posthumously inbut he was even more important for his compositions in the vernacular.
His Canzonierewritten from until his death inprovided the model on which the Renaissance lyric was to take shape and the standard by which future works would be judged. His work established secular poetry as a serious and noble pursuit. His eloquent and forceful presence made him a personal symbol of his own ideas.
Crowned with laurel, favoured by rulers, legates, and scholars, he became the human focus for the new interest in Classical revival and literary artistry.
In his prose works and letters he established positions that would be central to the movement, and he broached issues that would be its favourite subjects for debate.
His idea of the poet as a philosophical teacher and thus as a champion of culture would inspire humanists from Boccaccio to Sir Philip Sidney. His endorsement of the study of rhetoric and his underlying notion of language as an informing principle of the individual and society would become crucial subjects of humanistic discussion and debate.
His view of Classical culture, not as an isolated element of the past but as an authentic alternative to his own medieval society, was of equal historical importance. He helped to reestablish the Socratic tradition in Europe by specifying self-knowledge as a primary goal of philosophy.
This attitude and his unfailing insistence on moral autonomy were early and important signs of the individualism that would become a Renaissance hallmark. He emphasized human virtue as opposed to fortune and thus set the stage for numerous famous treatments of this theme.
He struggled repeatedly with the dilemma of action versus contemplation, establishing it as a favourite topic for humanistic debate. Petrarch did not invent these subjects, nor does he usually treat them with overwhelming power.
Though stylistically brilliant, his work is ultimately limited by conflicting commitments to faith and to reasonto autocracy and to liberty. His Teseida —41 was the first classical epic to have been written in the vernacular, and it influenced the Italian epics of Ludovico Ariosto and Torquato Tasso.
It includes a celebrated defense of poetry as a medium of hidden trutha stimulant to virtue, and a source of mental health. He worked in support of his city during the troubled times that led up to the War of the Eight Saints against the Avignon papacy — His prose style would become a benchmark for Italian expression in the Renaissance.
His most memorable contribution to humanism, however, is probably the famous Decameron. Ostensibly this work is no more than a collection of tales about love, but, subjected to the interpretive scrutiny that Boccaccio himself recommends in De genealogia deorum gentilium, the Decameron takes on a far more serious tone.
Through moral fable and direct address to the reader, he undertakes a reinterpretation of human experience based not on received doctrine but rather on perceived reality. Appealing repeatedly to reason and nature, and constantly implying the superiority of awareness to innocence which he equates with ignorancehe declares war on institutional tyrannies of church and statecalling instead for a moral order built fairly and solidly on the potentialities of human nature.
His 10 storytellers, who leave the plague-ravaged and chaotic city of Florence and reestablish themselves at delightfully landscaped villas, suggest the remaking of culture through disentanglement with the past, unprejudiced analysis, and enlightened imagination.
Rightly considered to be the wellspring of Western realismthe Decameron is also a monument to Ciceronian humanism. He was an aggressive and scientific philologist, instrumental in establishing principles of textual criticism that would become key elements of the humanistic method.
He was a forceful apologist for the active life, and his theories bore fruit in his own career as chancellor of the Florentine republic.
His use of Classical eloquence in the service of his state was an early documentation of the humanistic faith in the political power of rhetoric; it led a bitter enemy, Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan, to say that a thousand Florentine horsemen had hurt him less than the letters of Coluccio.
Salutati was succeeded in the Florentine chancellorship by two scholar-statesmen who reflected his influence: Bruni was a pioneer in the advocacy of humanistic education, holding that the studia humanitatis shape the perfected man and that the goal of this perfected virtue is political action.
His theory of education stressed the importance of practical experience implicit in the work of Boccaccio and put heavy emphasis on historical studies. His history of Florence is considered to be the first work of modern historiography; and, under the influence of Manuel Chrysolorasa Byzantine teacher who had lectured at Florence and Pavia, he produced Latin translations of Plato and Aristotle that broke with medieval tradition by reproducing the sense of the Greek prose rather than following it word by word.
Poggiothe foremost recoverer of Classical texts, was also a moralist, a historian, a brilliant correspondent, and an early scholar of architectural antiquities. Together, these Florentine chancellors, whose active lives spanned almost a century, strengthened and consolidated the humanistic program.
Moreover, their leadership strongly influenced the cultural developments that would make 15th-century Florence the most active intellectual and artistic centre in Europe.
As one proceeds with the history of humanism, the following major points about its development in the 13th and 14th centuries ought to be kept in mind. Humanism received its crucial imprint from the work of a single man and thence developed among men who maintained close touch with each other and acknowledged a shared mission.The major change in education during the Renaissance had to do with making education serve the purpose of the humanists.
This meant that education was aimed much more towards secular purposes than. History of Europe - Poverty: Though its extent might vary with current economic trends, poverty was a constant state.
It is hard to define since material expectations vary among generations, social groups, and countries. If those with sufficient land or a wage large enough to allow for the replacement of tools and stock are held to be above the poverty line, then at least a quarter of Europe.
Second, the whole question of the impact and spread of humanism in Europe raises a key area of recent research into the Renaissance, namely the issue of 'reception'. Recent scholarship has confirmed the view that the reception of the Renaissance as a whole in Europe was uneven, both in time and place.
The founder members of the Pacific alliance were the spy agencies from the Five Eyes, as well as South Korea, Singapore, and Thailand.
By , France and India had joined the Pacific group. The Master Data Management Summit is co-located with the Data Governance Conference and is Europe’s only co-located conferences on MDM & Data Governance.
History of Europe - The middle 19th century: During the half century when Romanticism was deploying its talents and ideas, the political minds inside or outside Romanticist culture were engaged in the effort to settle—each party or group or theory in its own way—the legacy of There were at least half a dozen great issues claiming attention and arousing passion.