At whatever level we study it--relationships between individuals, new names for sports clubs, the human admixture at cocktail parties, in the police, on the directing boards of national or private banks--decolonization is quite simply the replacing of a certain "species" of men by another "species" of men. Without any period of transition, there is a total, complete, and absolute substitution. It is true that we could equally well stress the rise of a new nation, the setting up of a new state, its diplomatic relations, and its economic and political trends.
For the scope of this paper, development refers to economic growth that leads to increased standard of living.
The latter term itself is problematic, depending on whether it is measured simply in economic terms, like Gross National Product GNPor if it includes social and health measures, like education and life expectancy, which one finds in the Human Development Index HDI.
One assumes that social workers will not be satisfied with an end-point at econometrics, since human welfare depends on much more than the accumulation of wealth.
Thus the hazards of international studies and its interdisciplinary nature—we obtain both the strengths, as well as the weaknesses Economic exploitation by colonial powers narrowly focused fields. Intuitively there is a strong relationship between wealth and quality of life.
Especially in capitalist states, where most citizens consider wealth to be linearly correlated quality of life--or at least the capacity to consume is equated with happiness Baudrillard, Empirically, data supports these presumptions, as measured by several indices: Given these relationships, it is not unreasonable for the social worker to factor economic development into strategies for intervention at all levels macro, mezzo, and microif not even as a core factor.
Cox and Pawar highlight the importance of economic issues for social workers in dedicating a significant portion of their text to poverty and development. Intervention at these levels, as described by Cox and Pawar, can be imposed by agents external to the state, such as structural adjustment programs of the IMF or World Bank, they can be controlled by the state, such as specific government policies and structures, and finally, macro-level development can be externally assisted, in the form of foreign aid and investment.
Local level development would refer to investment into small community projects, whether a small business, a health clinic, or a school, for example.
While the latter was initially described as a model of reducing poverty, the results are frequently in the opposite direction. Regardless of causation of poverty, Ferguson believes that social worker intervention can come at three levels, all related to increasing various forms of capital—human, financial and social.
While the social worker understands that none of these three can become the sole site of intervention in hopes that it will automatically produce the others, economic theories of development focus on creating growth of financial capital with the belief that it will catalyze, and lay the foundation for the other two although recent economic models, as will be discussed, recognize coordination of all three will probably produce the strongest benefits.
At this time the UNDP encouraged technical support to low-income countries to further facilitate growth after it was realized that economic contribution alone was not sufficient for human-capital impoverished communities to grow. International organizations began seeing the north-south economic divide, as well as becoming concerned about long-term impacts of capitalism on the environment.
The Bretton Woods institutions expanded their efforts to bottom-up loans, rather than simply state-focused loans.
The third state was a revival of classic Smith, as envisioned through Hayek. The Reagan-Thatcher decade of the s was characterized by the beginning of the neoliberal hegemony, where the pendulum swung back to privatization, deregulation and liberalization of trade opening global markets.
At this point the UN Secretary General, Boutros-Gali, asserted that development was a fundamental human right and united the triadic concepts of development, peace, and human security.
The Millennium Development Goals evolved into an internationally approved UN roadmap for achieving these three goals.
A more specific review is in order of these eras of development theory. Analyses of European growth after WWII indicated a fairly rapid and linear trajectory of economic growth that was built on a simplistic model of saving and investment.
The final stage, 5 is characterized by mass consumption, which drives continued production, technological development, and job growth. While intuitively attractive to the capitalist worldview and empirically supported at the time, it assumed a linear growth based on the two isolated variables of savings and investment.Exploitation colonialism involves fewer colonists and focuses on the exploitation of natural resources or population as labour, which determined the colonial economic performance.
This influenced the colonial powers as it sparked competition amongst them to explore and colonize these regions. Colonial economy was the economic undertaking which were operated by the colonialist or was the king of the economy introduced by the colonialists in their colonies.
These included agriculture, mining, communication and transportation of commerce and trade. The colonialists introduced these kinds of economies in Oder to fulfill their economic demands such as raw materials, cheap labor, areas.
The Struggles of the Colonial Peoples and the World Revolution colonial powers represents for them a double-edged weapon. and which is therefore utterly incapable of liberating British labor from the boons of colonial exploitation—a liberation which is the necessary, premise for emancipating the British proletariat from wage-slavery.
The degree of popularity has gone up and down depending on the circumstances. The PAC had much of the initiative and support after its formation in and into the s, due to its Africanist line and its aggressive organizing and military actions.
As an aside, though also related, in terms of the economic situation, it has been common, as the above briefing is titled, to blame the victim on causes of poverty, corruption, lack of development, and so forth. This has often applied to Africa, as well as other regions . Colonialism is the policy of a foreign polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of opening trade opportunities.
The colonizing country seeks to benefit whilst the colonized country or land mass, as many of the colonized countries were not countries at all, modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics.