In our increasingly digital age, ruins appear to be an endangered species, physical embodiments of modern paradoxes reminding us of the blunders of modern teleologies and technologies alike, and of the riddles of human freedom. Ruins make us think of the past that could have been and the future that never took place, tantalizing us with utopian dreams of escaping the irreversibility of time. At the same time, the fascination for ruins is not merely intellectual, but also sensual.
The notes provide an overview and some examples of Simmel's approach to the study of society. Sections 2 and 3 of these notes are the parts most applicable to the discussion of interaction and community in Sociology While Simmel is generally not regarded as being as influential in sociology as were Marx, Weber, Durkheim, or even Parsons, several of the early United States sociologists studied with or were influenced by Simmel.
This was especially true of those who developed the symbolic interaction approach including writers in the Chicago school, a tradition that dominated United States sociology in the early part of this century, before Parsons.
Georg SimmelGermany was born in Berlin and received his doctorate in He was of Jewish ancestry and was marginalized within the German academic system. Only in did Simmel obtain a regular academic appointment, and this appointment was in Strasbourg, far from Berlin.
In spite of these problems, he wrote extensively on the nature of association, culture, social structure, the city, and the economy. His writings were read by Durkheim and Weber, and Simmel contributed greatly to sociology and European intellectual life in the early part of this century.
Simmel's ideas were very influential on the Marxist scholar Georg Lukacs and Simmel's writings on the city and on money are now being used by contemporary sociologists. Simmel combines ideas from all of the three major classical writers and was influenced by Hegel and Kant.
When Simmel discusses social structures, the city, money, and modern society, his analysis has some similarities to the analyses of Durkheim problem of individual and societyWeber effects of rationalizationand Marx alienation.
Simmel considered society to be an association of free individuals, and said that it could not be studied in the same way as the physical world, i. This emphasis on social interaction at the individual and small group level, and viewing the study of these interactions as the primary task of sociology makes Simmel's approach different from that of the classical writers, especially Marx and Durkheim.
It is Simmel's attempt to integrate analysis of individual action with the structural approach that make his writings of contemporary interest.
Simmel began his inquiries from the bottom up, observing the smallest of social interactions and attempting to see how larger-scale institutions emerged from them. In doing so, he often noticed phenomena that other theorists missed. For example, Simmel observed that the number of parties to an interaction can effect its nature.
The interaction between two people, a dyad, will be very different from that which is possible in a three-party relationship, or triad. Simmel considered the size of the group in which social action takes place to be a factor in determining the nature of the group. Here he was concerned with the form of the group, rather than the content of the interaction.
In the dyad, a relationship can be considered relatively straightforward, in that each individual can present themselves to the other in a way that maintains their identity, and either party can end the relationship by withdrawing from it.
Various strategies emerge in the triad that change the form of interaction from the dyad. In the triad, there may be strategies that lead to competition, alliances, or mediation. The triad is likely to develop a group structure independent of the individuals in it, whereas this is less likely in the dyad Ritzer, p.
As group size increases even more, Ritzer notes that "the increase in the size of the group or society increases individual freedom. The small circle of early or premodern times, firmly closed against the neighbouring strange, or in some way antagonistic circlesGeorg simmel essay the ruin Get information, facts, and pictures about Georg Simmel at Encyclopedia.
com. Make research projects and school reports about Georg Simmel easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary. Nov 07, · Explain and assess Georg Simmel’s dialectical approach to the relationship of the individual and society.
In your answer, refer to Simmel’s depiction of some aspect of social life (eg. the city, travel, flirting, eating, fashion, etc) and his disclosure of its formal properties.
Georg Simmel was born on March 1, Like the stranger he described in his brilliant essay of the same name, George Santayana, The noted German sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel wrote a number of essays that deal directly with religion as a fundamental process in human life.
simmel Two Essays! THE HANDLE MODERN THEORIES FARTstrongly emphasize that the essential O task of painting and sculpture is the depiction of the spatial organization of things.5/5(2). SIMMEL, GEORG, Two Essays: The Handle, and The Ruin, Hudson Review, (Autumn) p Georg Simmel - The Ruin - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
About roman ruins. About roman ruins For it is held in the hand and drawn into the movement of practical kaja-net.com SIMMEL Two Essays' THE HANDLE M ODERN THEORIES OF ARTstrongly emphasize that the essential task of painting and sculpture is the depiction.