There are many possible reasons why hospitality was more prevalent in those times. The less advanced methods of transportation used in Homeric times, such as by boat or by foot, were much slower than modern forms of transportation. Because of this, many more nights were spent away from home in many different locations.
In General Ramblings Xenia, the Greek concept of hospitality and the guest-host relationship, was, according to M. Indeed, it is worked into The Odyssey as a major theme, and comes to influence the plot in significant ways.
For the modern reader, it is difficult to discern the nature of the guest-host relationship and its application without explicitly studying it.
Fortunately, an analysis of the episodes in the epic where the guest-host relationship is explored reveals that there is a formula for its development, and that there are certain elements of hospitality necessary for a guest to be properly received.
Furthermore, these elements and the function of the guest-host relationship assist the development of the plot, especially in the latter half of the epic when Odysseus must shed his disguise as a guest of Telemachus and come to restore his household.
The guest-host relationship is explored in a number of episodes throughout The Odyssey. An analysis of these interactions demonstrates that the development of this relationship is formulaic, as each episode shares a number of common elements of hospitality.
These elements include the bath, the feast, the question of who the guest is, the guest-gift, and the promise of transport and protection. Telemachus arrives at Plyos while Nestor and his people are holding a grand feast, is welcomed by them, and participates in the feasting.
|Cold Mountain Themes from LitCharts | The creators of SparkNotes||Overview[ edit ] Xenia consists of two basic rules:|
|Xenia in The Odyssey - Revision Notes in A Level and IB Classical Civilization||Synopsis Exposition A mosaic depicting Odysseusfrom the villa of La OlmedaPedrosa de la VegaSpain, late 4th-5th centuries AD The Odyssey begins after the end of the ten-year Trojan War the subject of the Iliadand Odysseus has still not returned home from the war because he angered the god, Poseidon. Odysseus' son Telemachus is about 20 years old and is sharing his absent father's house on the island of Ithaca with his mother Penelope and a crowd of boisterous young men, "the Suitors", whose aim is to persuade Penelope to marry one of them, all the while reveling in Odysseus' palace and eating up his wealth.|
|Xenia and the Stranger at the Door||Career[ edit ] Early career as pop singer[ edit ] In Debra "Debbie" Byrne made her television debut on Brian and the Juniorsa children's variety and talent quest, which was hosted by Brian Naylor.|
Strangers — friends, who are you? Where did you sail from, over the running sea-lanes? Telemachus is feasted by Nestor, questioned on his identity, given a guest-gift, provided a bath and clothed by a female host, and finally provided transportation.
Menelaus then welcomes him with a feast. Thus, immediately already three elements of the developing guest-host relationship, the bath, the feast, and the questioning of the guest, have again been demonstrated.
Here, then, he offers Telemachus his guest-gift and promises to provide him with horses and a chariot, which can serve as transportation.
Because this episode between Telemachus and his host shares these same elements of the guest-host relationship with the earlier episode, it is becoming apparent that the development of the guest-host relationship is formulaic; it requires these showings of hospitality to happen.
The next episode, where Odysseus is hosted at the land of the Phaeacians, further demonstrates this. Where have your rovings forced you? If these episodes demonstrate the successful navigation of the guest-host relationship, then the episode between Odysseus and the Cyclops demonstrates its failure.
First, the Cyclops Polyphemus fails to provide Odysseus and his men with food, instead eating it all for himself. Now who are you?
Seen here is the questioning of Odysseus and his men about their identities, a recurring element in the development of the guest-host relationship. However, in this episode the Cyclops asks this question having not provided his guests a feast, a deviation from the formula of guest-friendship derived from the other episodes.
Respect the gods, my friend. Odysseus makes this petition because of Polyphemus failure to uphold his role as host in the guest-host relationship, having deviated from the formula. He tells the Cyclops what the customs of xenia are and tells him that he and his men are suppliants, therefore presenting the Cyclops with the opportunity to provide them with protection and transport, an element of hospitality present in the other episodes.
Here, then, he fails in providing the protection a suppliant is to be given by a host. Later, he promises to give Odysseus a guest-gift, but the guest-gift turns out to be nothing more than a promise to eat Odysseus last.
His gift is simply to spare Odysseus until he is the last man, and then eat him. Because of this, it is clear that Polyphemus fails to uphold his responsibility as host to provide his guests transportation, and rather does the opposite by keeping them held in his cave. The episode between Polyphemus and Odysseus stands in stark contrast to the previous episodes, where the guest-host relationship is developed according to a formula and where the hosts uphold their responsibilities.
Xenia is largely absent, or corrupted, in this episode. The Cyclops episode demonstrates the failing of a host to provide his guests with hospitality, and can thus be contrasted against the earlier episodes to illuminate further these necessary elements of hospitality. First, Polyphemus asks the identity of the guests before any development of the relationship has begun.
It is the first thing, which he does.A page from the edition of Book 11 of Homer's Odyssey, which describes the journey to the underworld of Hades, has unidentified margin notes that the University of Chicago hopes to decipher. Mysterious writing in rare copy of Homer's 'Odyssey' identified - I .
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Xenia was actually the root cause of all the troubling situations Odysseus found himself in throughout The Odyssey. This is because the casus belli of the Trojan war, Paris ’ abduction of Helen, was a most serious breach of xenia etiquette.
Xenia - Arguably the most important themes in the poem, it is the code of recieving and being a guest. Zeus is the god of xenia. Xenia was a mark of civilisation and anyone who didn't have it (like Polyphemus is refered to in Book 9 as having no culture,along with the other cyclopes) were looked down upon, both by the audience and by the.
The Odyssey (/ ˈ ɒ d ə s i /; Greek: Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, pronounced [kaja-net.com] in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to kaja-net.com is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the other work ascribed to kaja-net.com Odyssey is fundamental to the modern Western canon; it is the second-oldest extant work of Western literature, while the Iliad is the oldest.
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