SHARE Foreign Minister Taro Kono plans to call for international cooperation in ratcheting up pressure on North Korea to give up its nuclear ambitions, at an international security conference next month in Germany, a government source has said.
During the last half of the nineteenth century, the Western imperialist powers of England, France, and Germany established the model for acquisition of colonies in Asia and for the partition of China into spheres of influence. Near the end of the century, about the same time Japan began to capture colonial territory, the United States and Russia also initiated their imperialistic expansion in Asia.
The four theories to be reviewed will be Hobson's theory of domestic market underconsumption that leads to capitalists seeking profits overseas, Lenin's theory of the monopoly stage of capitalism, Schumpeter's theory of inherited warlike tendencies from prior generations, and nationalism's focus on politics as the critical factor.
This essay's review of Japan's history of imperialism from to will show that the theory of nationalism provides the best explanations of the causes of Japan's militaristic actions and colonial acquisitions, although Schumpeter's sociological-based theory seems to provide some explanation for the actions of the Meiji Period leaders.
Section 1 of this essay reviews the key points of the four theories of imperialism. The following section examines some highlights of Japan's history of imperialism between and Section 3 evaluates each theory as to whether or not it explains Japan's imperialistic actions during this time period.
The final section provides conclusions.
Theories of Imperialism Imperialism can be defined as direct or indirect domination of an industrialized country over a colonial territory or another country. These three theories and the theory of nationalism have been subjected to various criticisms, but proponents still exist for each one.
For example, Nowell argues for the Self preservation japan territorial ambitions validity and contemporary relevance of Hobson's theory. Schumpeter's "idea still has a large following" Howard and King19and there have always been numerous supporters for Lenin's theory and the nationalist theory.
Hobson identified the taproot of imperialism to be surplus capital in the home country in search of profitable investments in foreign markets. The profits earned by the small number of rich capitalists in the home market resulted in chronic oversaving, since they had a lower marginal propensity to consume than poor workers with wages based upon the cost of living rather than the efficiency of their labor Although imperialism does not make sense as a business policy for a nation as a whole due to its enormous military and administrative expense, "strong organized industrial and financial interests" that stand to gain from imperialism find ways to put this expense on the general public 46, Hobson argued that if purchasing power were reapportioned from the rich to the poor, then the home market would provide full employment of capital and labor with no overproduction, and there would be no need for the imperialistic fight for foreign markets Lenin 14, 88 expressed the Marxist view of imperialism as the "monopoly stage of capitalism," the highest and final stage of capitalism prior to the proletarian social revolution.
Essential features of imperialism include the concentration of production and capital into monopolies large-scale firmsthe merging of bank and industrial capital, the export of capital, the apportionment of the world among the large-scale firms, and the division of territories of the world among the great capitalist powers Lenin also emphasized that the need for raw materials drove capitalists to acquire colonies Like Hobson, Lenin argues that surplus capital will be exported abroad for the purpose of increasing profits However, in contrast to Hobson's view that the problem of surplus capital could be resolved by redistribution of purchasing power within the home country, Lenin believed that the wretched condition of the masses was inevitable and that imperialistic expansion by capitalist countries could not be avoided.
Joseph Schumpeter 6 considered imperialism to be "the objectless disposition on the part of the state to unlimited forcible expansion. The bellicosity of an autocratic state derives from "the necessities of its social structure, from the inherited dispositions of its ruling class, rather than from the immediate advantages to be derived from the conquest" As a country becomes more capitalistic, the energy for war decreases as the "competitive system absorbs the full energies of most of the people at all economic levels" Schumpeter viewed imperialism as an atavism in the social structure of capitalist states, an element from prior history that affects emotional reactions Nationalism as a theory of imperialism goes under several other names, such as "power politics" Cohen; Mommsen74 and "mercantilism" Brown26; Gilpin The theory of nationalism emphasizes the essential role of the state in imperialistic behavior as a nation seeks to maximize its power, prestige, and wealth relative to other countries.
Nationalists consider economic relations between nations to be conflictual, a zero-sum game where the gain of one nation is the loss of another nation.
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There is a huge genre of Japanese young adult novels and films that evokes the downtrodden attitude of many modern young people.
In this sense, the sang mentality is a means of self-preservation. By deliberately stunting themselves, China’s young people reduce their. The need for self-preservation was the motivating force behind Japan’s territorial ambitions.
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